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Initial articles


End punctuation by MARC field

Form subdivisions

Names of Seasons

In art/In literature

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Vernacular designator

Romanization tables (outside link)

Initial Articles
Introduction -- List of Initial Articles

Initial articles are normally deleted from certain access points; when this is true, they are deleted whether in the nominative case or in some case other than the nominative.

It is necessary to recognize initial articles, distinguishing them as necessary from other words that happen to be spelled the same as articles (cf. The English, Portuguese, etc., article "a" and the French, Italian, etc., preposition "à" or "a"; or languages that use the same form both for an indefinite article (comparable to English "a") and the number "one.")

Such words when not serving as initial articles are retained.

Also retained are plural indefinites, whether they have the form of articles (Portuguese "umas," Spanish "unos," et.) Or not (English "some," French "des," Italian "qualche," etc.)

Below is a list of initial articles. For the details of this policy as applied to bibliographic description and access points, see the following LCRIs:

  • LCRI 1.0, for bibliographic description
  • LCRI 21.30J, for titles traced explicitly
  • LCRI 21.30L, for series tracings
  • LCRI 22.4, for personal names
  • LCRI 23.2, for geographic names
  • LCRI 26.1, for cross references

List of Initial Articles
a English, Gallegan, Hungarian, Portuguese, Romanian, Scots, Yiddish
a' Gaelic
al Romanian
al- Arabic, Baluchi, Brajui, Panjabi (Perso-Arabic script), Persian, Turkish, Urdu (N.B. "al-" is meant to cover all the spellings in romanization, e.g., "as"in "as-sijill")
am Gaelic
an English, Gaelic, Irish, Scots, Yiddish
an t- Gaelic, Irish
ane Scots
ang Tagalog
ang mga Tagalog
as Gallegan, Portuguese
az Hungarian
bat Basque
bir Turkish
d' English
da Shetland English
das German
de Danish, Dutch, English, Friesian, Norwegian, Swedish
dei Norwegian
dem German
den Danish, German, Norwegian, Swedish
der German, Yiddish
des German
det Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
di Yiddish
die Afrikaans, German, Yiddish
dos Yiddish
e Norwegian
‘e Friesian
een Dutch
eene Dutch
egy Hungarian
ei Norwegian
ein German, Norwegian
eine German
einem German
einen German
einer German
eines German
eit Norwegian
el Catalan, Spanish
el- Arabic
els Catalan
en Catalan, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
et Danish, Norwegian
ett Swedish
eyn Yiddish
eyne Yiddish
gl' Italian
gli Italian
ha- Hebrew
hai Classical Greek, Greek
he Hawaiian
Classical Greek, Greek
he- Hebrew
heis Greek
hen Greek
hena Greek
henas Greek
het Dutch
hið Icelandic
hin Icelandic
hina Icelandic
hinar Icelandic
hinir Icelandic
hinn Icelandic
hinna Icelandic
hinnar Icelandic
hinni Icelandic
hins Icelandic
hinu Icelandic
hinum Icelandic
hi Icelandic
ho Classical Greek, Greek
ho- Hebrew
hoi Classical Greek, Greek
i Italian
ih' Provençal
il Italian, Provençal/Langue d'oc
il- Maltese
in Friesian
it Friesian
ka Hawaiian
kay Tagalog
ke Hawaiian
l' Catalan, French, Italian, Provençal/Langue d'oc
l- Maltese
la Catalan, Esperanto, French, Italian, Provençal/Langue d'oc, Spanish
las Provençal/Langue d'oc, Spanish
le French, Italian, Provençal/Langue d'oc
les Catalan, French, Provençal/Langue d'oc
lh Provençal/Langue d'oc
lhi Provençal/Langue d'oc
li Provençal/Langue d'oc
lis Provençal/Langue d'oc
lo Italian, Provençal/Langue d'oc, Spanish
los Provençal/Langue d'oc, Spanish
lou Provençal/Langue d'oc
lu Provençal/Langue d'oc
mga Tagalog
mia Greek
‘n Afrikaans, Dutch, Friesian
na Gaelic, Hawaiian, Irish
na h- Gaelic, Irish
nang Tagalog
ni Tagalog
nina Tagalog
‘o Neopolitan
o Gallegan, Hawaiian, Portuguese, Romanian
os Portuguese
‘r Icelandic
‘s German
sa Tagalog
sa mga Tagalog
si Tagalog
siná Tagalog
‘t Dutch, Friesian
ta Classical Greek, Greek
tais Classical Greek
tas Classical Greek
Classical Greek
Classical Greek, Greek
Classical Greek, Greek
the English
to Classical Greek, Greek
Classical Greek
tois Classical Greek
ton Classical Greek, Greek
Classical Greek, Greek
tou Classical Greek, Greek
um Portuguese
uma Portuguese
umas Portuguese
un Catalan, French, Italian Provençal/Langue d'oc, Romanian, Spanish
un' Italian
una Catalan, Italian, Provençal/Langue d'oc, Spanish
unas Spanish
une French
unei Romanian
unes Catalan
unha Gallegan
uno Italian, Provençal/Langue d'oc
unos Spanish
uns Provençal/Langue d'oc
unui Romanian
us Provençal/Langue d'oc
y Welsh
ye English
yr Welsh