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Slavic Cataloging Manual

everal questions have come up concerning the proper use of the headings: Russia/Soviet Union/Former Soviet republics. Originally, all subjects dealing with this area of the world were contained in the single heading: Russia until 1981 when it was changed to Soviet Union (See: CSB 12, Spring 1981, p. 53) All instances of Russia as a subject were changed automatically to Soviet Union.
In 1992, the practice was changed again. From an apparently simple premise ("The heading Soviet Union--History--Peter I, 1689-1725 makes no sense!"), has arisen a complex situation, which differs markedly from normal practice.

This course was originally given in the form of a workshop to the catalogers at Princeton University Library, and has been updated and adapted for online use.

It is important to realize that the practice for R/SU/FSr varies from practice for other geographic headings. Although the Subject Cataloging Manual states that one subject heading should cover one geographic area, the heading myriad R/SU/FSr constitutes three headings for the single geographic entity.
This presents problems not seen in other subjects. Occasionally, subject headings may be tripled, while at other times, no changes from former practice will occur.

Chronology of Russia/Soviet Union/Former Soviet republics

The key to assigning correct subjects is to remember the dates of the political changes shown above. The general rule is:

It would be nice if the problem could be solved in such a mechanical fashion, but as often occurs with "simple" rules, applying them consistently is exceedingly complex. Below, we will examine several cases.

Here is an example of a record that has had no changes. This book has an historical subject that deals only with the period of the Soviet Union.

Author: Anufriev, V. I. (Valerii Ivanovich)
Title: V pervuiu poslevoennuiu-- : deiatelnost partii po ukrepleniiu promyshlennosti kadrami rabochikh v 1945-1950 gg. / V.I. Anufriev.
Publication: Moskva : "Mysl", 1983.
Subjects: Manpower policy--Soviet Union--History.
Soviet Union--Economic policy--1946-1950.
Reconstruction (1939-1951)--Soviet Union.

The next record has undergone a slight change. The subject is also historical, but the period of time is only during the Russian Empire. The subjects change from Soviet Union to Russia.

Old record

Author: Skrynnikov, R. G.
Title: The time of troubles : Russia in crisis, 1604-1618 / Ruslan G. Skrynnikov ; edited and translated by Hugh F. Graham.
Publication: Gulf Breeze, FL : Academic International Press, 1988.
Series: The Russian series ; v. 36
Subjects: Soviet Union--History--Epoch of confusion, 1605-1613.
Soviet Union--History--Michael, 1613-1645.

Updated record

Subjects: Russia--History--Epoch of confusion, 1605-1613.
Russia--History--Michael, 1613-1645.

The next record is another example of no change. The subject assigned is Soviet Union, although in 1920, the Soviet Union had still not yet been named, and the word Russia appears in the title.

Author: Rhodes, Benjamin D.
Title: The Anglo-American winter war with Russia, 1918-1919 : a diplomatic and military tragicomedy / Benjamin D. Rhodes.
Publication: New York : Greenwood Press, c1988.
Series: Contributions in military studies, ISSN 0883-6884 ; no. 71
Subjects: Soviet Union--History--Allied intervention, 1918-1920.
United States--Military relations--Soviet Union.
Soviet Union--Military relations--United States.
United States--History, Military--20th century.

The next examples shows some problems with history. All headings for pre-1917 Soviet Union change to Russia.

Old Record

Author: Pavlenko, Nikolai Ivanovich.
Title: Petr Velikii / N.I. Pavlenko.
Publication: Moskva : "Mysl", 1990.
Series: Bibliotechnaia seriia
Subjects: Peter I, Emperor of Russia, 1672-1725.
Soviet Union--Kings and rulers--Biography.
Soviet Union--History--Peter I, 1689-1725.

Updated Record

Subjects: Peter I, Emperor of Russia, 1672-1725.
Russia--Kings and rulers--Biography.
Russia--History--Peter I, 1689-1725.

This can get tricky. Care must be taken when changing headings and it must not be done automatically. Here is an example.

Old Record

Author: Babenko, V. N., kandidat istoricheskikh nauk.
Title: Otechestvennaia voina 1812 g. : ukazatel sovetskoi literatury 1962-1987 gg. / [sostaviteli Babenko V.N., Rozenberg L.I., Urina I.S. ; otvetstvennyi redaktor Babenko V.N.].
Publication: Moskva : Akademiia nauk SSSR, In-t nauch. informatsii po obshchestvennym naukam, 1987.
Subjects: Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1815--Campaigns--Soviet Union--Bibliography.
Soviet Union--History, Military--1801-1917
Soviet Union--Imprints--Bibliography.

If we merely changed the headings from Soviet Union to Russia, we would run into a quandry.

Subjects: Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1815--Campaigns--Russia
Russia--History, Military--1801-1917--Bibliography.

We should not forget that this is an index to literature written during 1962-1987, (during the time of the Soviet Union, not during the Russian Empire). Therefore, the correct headings are:

Subjects: Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1815--Campaigns--Russia
Russia--History, Military--1801-1917--Bibliography.
Soviet Union--Imprints--Bibliography.

Other problems arise with general histories. For items dealing with different time periods, the subject headings must be doubled or tripled.

Doubled headings
This book deals with the periods of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, but it cannot deal with the period of the Former Soviet republics because of the publication date.

Author: Volin, Lazar, 1896-1966.
Title: A century of Russian agriculture; from Alexander II to Khrushchev.
Publication: Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1970.
Series: Russian Research Center studies, no.63
Subjects: Agriculture--Russia--History.
Agriculture--Soviet Union--History.

Tripled headings - a general history until 1993.

Title: Russia and the independent states / edited by Daniel C. Diller.
Publication: Washington, D.C. : Congressional Quarterly, c1993.
Subjects: Former Soviet republics--History.
Commonwealth of Independent States.
Soviet Union--History.

Single heading - deals only with the time period after the Soviet Union.

Title: After the Soviet Union : from empire to nations / Timothy J. Colton and Robert Legvold, editors.
Publication: New York : W.W. Norton & Co., c1992.
Subjects: Former Soviet republics--History.

Non-Historical subjects

For non-historical subjects, the practice changes and can become very complex. Assign subjects on the basis of the publication date, i.e. books published before 1917 get Russia; from 1917-1991, assign Soviet Union; after 1991, assign Former Soviet republics. These records will never be doubled or tripled.

Example: Birds
This general book on birds receives the heading for the Russian Empire, because it was published in 1892.

Author: Kaigorodov, D. N. (Dmitrii Nikoforovich), 1846-1924.
Title: Iz tsarstva pernatykh : populiarnye ocherki iz msira russkikh ptits / Dimitrsii Kaigorodov.
Publication: S.-Peterburg : Izd. A.S. Suvorina, 1892.
Subjects: 1. Birds--Russia.

This general book on birds receives the heading for the Soviet Union because it was published in 1987.

Author: Peklo, A. M. (Aleksandr Mikhailovich)
Title: Mukholovki fauny SSSR / A.M. Peklo.
Publication: Kiev : Nauk. dumka, 1987.
Subjects: Muscicapidae--Soviet Union.
Birds--Soviet Union.

Finally, this general book on birds receives the heading for the Former Soviet republics because it was published in 1993.

Title: Ptitsy Rossii i sopredelnykh regionov. Riabkoobraznye, golubeobraznye, kukushkoobraznye, sovoobraznye / [avtory, E.I. Gavrilov ... et al. ; otvetstvennyi redator toma, S.G. Priklonskii].
Publication: Moskva : Izd-vo "Nauka", 1993.
Subjects: Birds--Former Soviet republics.


If the first two books shown above were reprinted in 1999, choose the original date for subject analysis. In this way, an original and its reprint do not get separated in the catalog.

Russia/Soviet Union/Former Soviet republics or republic subdivision?

With individual republics of the former Soviet Union, the practice usually is more straightforward, but we can still run into some tricky points. The major question is: should a heading from R/SU/FSr be used or should it be a local division?
We begin with two simple examples.

The next example shows a normal update to validate headings. Russian S.F.S.R. (never valid as a geographic subject) is changed to Russia (Federation).
The qualifier on Siberia, Eastern (R.S.F.S.R.) in turn changes to Siberia, Eastern (Russia (Federation)).
But RI23.4B states that the qualifier of a qualifier drops out. Therefore, the heading is Siberia, Eastern (Russia).

Old record

Author: Ilina, L. N. (Liudmila Nikolaevna)
Title: Put k bogatstvam Sibiri / L.N. Ilina.
Publication: Moskva : "Mysl", 1987.
Subjects: Natural resources--Russian S.F.S.R.--Siberia, Eastern.
Siberia, Eastern (R.S.F.S.R.)--Economic conditions.
Baikalo-Amurskaia magistral--Economic aspects.

Updated Record

Subjects: Natural resources--Russia (Federation)--Siberia, Eastern.
Siberia, Eastern (Russia)--Economic conditions.
Baikalo-Amurskaia magistral--Economic aspects.

A normal update for another former republic of the Soviet Union.

Author: Chyimylova, B.D. (Biubiukan Derkimbaevna)
Title: Istoriia razvitiia sotsialisticheskogo sorevnovaniia v promyshlennosti Kirgizii / B. D. Chyimylova ; AN KirgSSR, In-t istorii.
Publication: Frunze : Ilim, 1977.
Subjects: Socialist competition--Kirghiz S.S.R.
Industries--Kirghiz S.S.R.

The old heading Kirghiz S.S.R. updates to Kyrgyzstan.

Subjects: Socialist competition--Kyrgyzstan.

It can still get rather tricky. Here is a more complex example.

Title: SSSR--SShA : kriminologicheskie i ugolovno-pravovye problemy borby s gorodskoi prestupnostiu / [redaktsionnaia kollegiia Borodin S.V., Kelina S.G., IAkovlev A.M.].
Publication: Moskva : Akademiia nauk SSSR, In-t gosudarstva i prava, 1987.
Subjects: Crime prevention--United States.
Crime prevention--Soviet Union.
Crime prevention--Georgian S.S.R.

In this case, Georgian S.S.R updates, but Soviet Union stays the same since the publication date is 1987.

Subjects: Crime prevention--United States.
Crime prevention--Soviet Union.
Crime prevention--Georgia (Republic)

Additional problems arise when subjects could be considered either historical or non-historical. The next book deals with the protection of monuments created before 1917, but being protected by the Soviet government.
Soviet Union--Antiquities is especially difficult.

Title: Voprosy okhrany i ispolzovaniia pamiatnikov istorii i kultury / [otvetstvennye redaktory M.A. Poliakova, E.A. Shulepova].
Publication: Moskva : Nauchno-issl. in-t kultury, 1990.
Series: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov
Subjects: Cultural property, Protection of--Soviet Union.
Monuments--Soviet Union.
Soviet Union--Antiquities.

In these cases, LC tends to opt for republic level geographic subdivision, even in less clear situations.

Author: Ikonnikov, Andrei Vladimirovich.
Title: Tysiacha let russkoi arkhitektury : razvitie traditsii / A.V. Ikonnikov.
Publication: Moskva : "Iskusstvo", 1990.
Subjects: Architecture, Medieval--Russia (Federation)
Architecture, Modern--Russia (Federation)
Architecture--Russia (Federation)

Of course, other records present their own peculiarities. This book deals with the period after 1992. The headings concern the Former Soviet republics, but there is still substantial material on the Russian Federation. Thankfully, it does not deal with the pre-1991 period, since then we would have to double the headings.

Title: Food and agricultural policy reforms in the former USSR : an agenda for the transition / Country Department III, Europe and Central Asia Region.
Publication: Washington, D.C. : World Bank, 1992.
Series: Studies of economies in transformation, ISSN 1014-997X ; paper no. 1
Subjects: Food supply--Former Soviet republics--Congresses.
Food supply--Russia (Federation)--Congresses.
Agriculture and state--Former Soviet republics
Agriculture and state--Russia (Federation)

This does not exhaust the possibilities. What if it is a work of biography? A person could have been born during the Russian Empire, but survived to see the end of the Soviet Union. What if it is a catalog of an exhibition of art works produced in Russia/Soviet Union/Former Soviet Republics? The attempt to find consistency can become very confusing and the resulting guidelines can become quite complex.
We shall discuss each of these at length.

Biography: Overview

When determining the geographic division for a work of biography, problems often arise. Some are solved through the application of the general rule.

The general rule
  • For people living before 1917, use Russia.
  • For those whose primary career was from 1917-1991, use Soviet Union.
  • The only time LC has assigned Biography with Former Soviet republics is for books such as Who's who in Russia and the CIS countries.

Still other problems can arise. The first is when a person's lifetime has spanned different eras. The second is whether to use the geographic areas for the Russia/Soviet Union/Former Soviet republics, or an independent republic subdivision.

When people's lifetimes span different eras, and their careers change along with the government, the subject analysis becomes more complex, e.g.

A biography of Lenin.

Author: Valentinov, N. (Nikolai), 1879-1964.
Title: Maloznakomyi Lenin / N. Valentinov.
Publication: Sankt-Peterburg : "Mansarda" : "SMART", 1991.
Subjects: Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, 1870-1924--Finance, Personal.
Heads of state--Soviet Union--Biography.
Lenin was a revolutionary against the Russian Empire, but the head of the Soviet state.

A biography of Lidiia Dan, a Menshevik and opponent of the tsarist regime who emigrated in 1922.

Author: Dan, Lidiia.
Title: [Iz arkhiva L.O. Dan / otobral, snabdil primechaniiami i ocherkom biografii L.O. Dan Boris Sapir].
Publication: Amsterdam : Stichting Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, c1987.
Subjects: Dan, Lidiia.
Revolutionaries--Soviet Union--Biography.
Mensheviks--Soviet Union--Biography.
Soviet Union--Politics and government--1894-1917.
Soviet Union--Politics and government--20th century.

Subjects: Dan, Lidiia.
Mensheviks--Soviet Union--Biography.
Russia--Politics and government--1894-1917.
Soviet Union--Politics and government.
Ms. Dan was a Menshevik during the periods of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, but she was a revolutionary only against the Russian Empire. The headings for --Politics and government are changed for historical reasons, and the --20th century for the Soviet Union becomes redundant.

A biography of Boris Savinkov, a revolutionary executed in 1925.

Author: Savinkov, B. V. (Boris Viktorovich), 1879-1925.
Vospominaniia terrorista
Title: Vospominaniia / B. Savinkov ; [sostavlenie, avtor vstup. statia, primechanii i imennoi ukazatel I.M. Pushkareva].
Publication: Moskva : Moskovskii rabochii, 1990.
Subjects: Savinkov, B. V. (Boris Viktorovich), 1879-1925.
Partiia sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov.
Terrorists--Soviet Union--Biography.
Revolutionaries--Soviet Union--Biography.
Savinkov was a revolutionary against both the Russian Empire and the Soviet state.

Below are some more examples.

Doubled Heading

Author: Gutman, David, 1957-
Title: Prokofiev / David Gutman.
Publication: London ; New York : Omnibus Press, 1990.
Series: The illustrated lives of the great composers
Subjects: Prokofiev, Sergey, 1891-1953.
Composers--Soviet Union--Biography.
Prokofiev composed during the periods of both the Russian Empire and Soviet Union.

Single heading

Author: Yastrebtsev, V. V. (Vasilii Vasilevich), 1866-1934.
Nikolai Andreevich Rimskii-Korsakov. English
Title: Reminiscences of Rimsky-Korsakov / V.V. Yastrebtsev ; edited and translated by Florence Jonas ; foreward by Gerald Abraham.
Publication: New York : Columbia University Press, 1985.
Subjects: Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay, 1844-1908.

Compare the following two records.

Author: Yeltsin, Boris Nikolayevich, 1931-
Title: Against the grain : an autobiography / Boris Yeltsin ; translated by Michael Glenny.
Publication: New York : Summit Books, c1990.
Subjects: Yeltsin, Boris Nikolayevich, 1931-
Politicians--Soviet Union--Biography.
Soviet Union--Politics and government--1985-1991.

Author: Korzhakov, Aleksandr.
Title: Boris Eltsin--ot rassveta do zakata / Aleksandr Korzhakov.
Publication: Moskva : Izd-vo "Interbuk", 1997.
Subjects: Yeltsin, Boris Nikolayevich, 1931-
Presidents--Russia (Federation)--Biography.
Russia (Federation)--Politics and government
Soviet Union--Politics and government--1985-1991.
Korzhakov, Aleksandr.
The first book was published in 1990, before the end of the Soviet Union. The doubling that takes place in the second record reflects later developments. Notice also that the doubling is with Soviet Union and Russia (Federation), not with Former Soviet republics.

As difficult as it is for catalogers to make these distinctions, it must be considered beyond the abilities of a general user.

To deal with this problem, Princeton has included notes in the public catalog.
See: OPAC Notes for the Former Soviet republics


A particularly difficult area of subject analysis comes with exhibitions of art work. Questions concerning: where were these items made? and when were these items made? can be confused with where were these items held at the time of the exhibition?

Example of geographic subdivision. (--Russia)

Author: Gosudarstvennyi Ermitazh (Russia).
Title: Osvetitelnye pribory kontsa XVII-nachala XX veka v Rossii : katalog vystavki / [avtor vstupitelnoi stati, L.R. Nikiforova ; sostaviteli kataloga, Z. A. Berniakovich ... et al.].
Publication: Leningrad : Avrora, 1975.
Subjects: Candlesticks--Russia--Exhibitions.
All the items in this exhibition were created before 1917.

Example of integral part of the heading. (Art, Russian)

Author: Williams College. Museum of Art.
Title: Art for the masses : Russian revolutionary art from the Merrill C. Berman collection / produced by Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, Massachusetts ; curator : Darra Goldstein ; catalogue essays : Darra Goldstein & Gail H. Roman.
Publication: Williamstown, MA : Williams College, 1985.
Subjects: Art, Russian--Exhibitions.
Berman, Merrill C.--Art collections--Exhibitions.
Constructivism (Art)--Soviet Union--Exhibitions.
The art was produced during the period of the Soviet Union. Consideration must also be given to the heading: Art, Soviet, but precedence is given to Art, Russian because of the emphasis on "Russian revolutionary art".

Clear guidelines have never appeared for the use of headings such as Art, Soviet, which appeared in the early 1990's. In CSB 12, Spring 1981, p. 53, the guideline said that
"The use of the adjective Russian referring either to the Russian language or the Soviet Union will be retained."
They went on to explain that Russian was more convenient for cataloging purposes.

If the exhibition consists of items from a single collection, add a heading for the location of the collection.

Author: Gosudarstvennye muzei Moskovskogo Kremlia.
Title: Russkoe zoloto XIV-nachala XX veka iz fondov Gosudarstvennykh muzeev Moskovskogo Kremlia = Russian gold of the fourteenth to early twentieth centuries from the Moscow Kremlin Reserves / [avtory-sostaviteli S.IA. Kovarskaia, I.D. Kostina, E.V. Shakurova ; fotosemka B.V. Golovchenko, K.K. Kushnareva].
Publication: Moskva : "Sov. Rossiia", 1987.
Subjects: Goldwork--Russia--Catalogs.
Goldwork--Russia (Federation)--Moscow--Catalogs.
Gosudarstvennye muzei Moskovskogo Kremlia--Catalogs.
The headings are not doubled because of the dates (before the Soviet Union). There is an extra heading for the location of the collection (Moscow Kremlin Reserves).

Headings may still need to be doubled or tripled for R/SU/FSr.

Complex Example of an Exhibition Catalog.

Title: Meisterwerke aus dem graphischen Kabinett der Staatlichen Tretjakow-Galerie Moskau, 1880-1930 / Vorworte von Jurij Korolov und Hans H. Hofstatter ; mit einer Einleitung von Jelena Shukowa und einem Beitrag von Hans H. Hofstatter ; [die Ubersetzung der Texte aus dem Russischen besorgte Johanna Roos].
Publication: Freiburg i. Br. : Augustinermuseum, [1989?].
Subjects: Art, Russian--Exhibitions.
Art, Modern--19th century--Russia--Exhibitions.
Art, Modern--20th century--Russia--Exhibitions.
Art, Modern--20th century--Soviet Union
Gosudarstvennaia Tretiakovskaia galereia
Art--Russia (Federation)--Moscow--Exhibitions.
The dates clearly indicate the need for doubling the headings, but Art, Modern--20th century can also have Russia. At the same time, Russia (Federation)--Moscow is assigned for the location of the collection.

Obviously, assigning these headings can become rather difficult and time-consuming. If all the works were made by artists from a single republic, e.g. the present Russia (Federation), the single heading can be used.

Title: Kunstlerinnen der russischen Avantgarde, 1910-1930 : Ausstellung, Dezember 1979-Marz 1980, Galerie Gmurzynska = Russian women-artists of the avantgarde, 1910-1930 : exhibition, December 1979-March 1980, Galerie Gmurzynska / [Redaktion, Krystyna Rubinger ; Mitarbeit, Hiltrud Jordan.
Publication: Koln : Die Galerie, c1979.
Subjects: Art, Russian--Exhibitions.
Art, Modern--20th century--Russia (Federation)
Avant-garde (Aesthetics)--Russia (Federation)
Women artists--Russia (Federation)--Exhibitions.
Luckily, all the artists lived in the Russian Federation. If they had not, all the headings would have had to double Russia/Soviet Union because of the dates 1910-1930.

Here are some other examples with explanations.


Author: Pavlenko, Nikolai Ivanovich.
Title: Russische und sowjetische Zeichnungen und Aquarelle von 1900 bis 1930 aus dem Puschkin-Museum Moskau : Stadtische Kunsthalle Mannheim, 17. Februar bis 22. April 1990 / [Katalog der Werke, Natalia Alexandrowa ; Ubersetzung aus dem Russischen, Olga Denissowa].
Publication: Mannheim : Die Kunsthalle, c1990.
Subjects: Drawing, Russian--Exhibitions.
Drawing--20th century--Soviet Union--Exhibitions.
Drawing--Russian S.F.S.R.--Moscow--Exhibitions.
Watercolor painting, Russian--Exhibitions.
Watercolor painting--20th century--Russian S.F.S.R.--Exhibitions.
Watercolor painting--Russian S.F.S.R.
Subjects: Drawing, Russian--Exhibitions.
Drawing--20th century--Soviet Union--Exhibitions.
Drawing--20th century--Russia--Exhibitions.
Drawing--20th century--Russia (Federation)
Watercolor painting, Russian--Exhibitions.
Watercolor painting--20th century--Soviet Union--Exhibitions.
Watercolor painting--20th century--Russia
Watercolor painting--Russia (Federation)
Gosudarstvennyi muzei izobrazitelnykh iskusstv imeni A.S. Pushkina--Exhibitions.
  1. Russia must be added for the 20th century.
  2. The heading for the location of the collection (Moscow) changes its indirect subdivision from Russian S.F.S.R. to Russia (Federation).

A simpler example.

Author: Bessonova, M. A. (Marina Aleksandrovna)
Title: Franzosische Impressionisten aus dem Puschkin-Museum, Moskau : 171. Sonderaustellung des Historischen Museums der Stadt Wien, 18. Februar bis 25. April 1993 / [Katalogtexte, Marina Bessonowa (Malerei), Vitaly Mishin (Graphik) ; Ubersetzung und Katalogredaktion, Olga Postnikova-Haiko].
Publication: Wien : Das Historische Museum, [1993].
Series: 171. Sonderausstellung des Historischen Museums der Stadt Wien
Subjects: Impressionism (Art)--France--Exhibitions.
Art, French--Exhibitions.
Art, Modern--19th century--France--Exhibitions.
Art--Russia (Federation)--Moscow--Exhibitions.
Gosudarstvennyi muzei izobrazitelnykh iskusstv imeni A.S. Pushkina--Exhibitions.
This exhibition deals only with French art held in the Pushkin Museum. Therefore, only the heading for the location of the collection is added: Russia (Federation)--Moscow.

Author: Gosudarstvennyi Ermitazh (Russia)
Pamiatniki russkoi khudozhestvennoi kultury. English
Title: Masterpieces of Russian culture and art : the Hermitage, Leningrad : from the 15th to the early 20th centuries / [introduced by Galina Komelova and Vladimir Vasilyev ; contributed by Z. Berniakovich, et al. ; English translation by Era Mozolkova].
Publication: Moscow : Sovetsky Khudozhnik, 1981.
Series: Bibliotechnaia seriia
Subjects: Art, Russian--Catalogs.
Art--Russia (Federation)--Saint Petersburg
Decorative arts--Russia--Catalogs.
Gosudarstvennyi Ermitazh (Russia)--Catalogs.
These works were produced before the Soviet Union. The heading Art--Russia (Federation)--Saint Petersburg--Catalogs is assigned for the Hermitage.

Earlier Cataloging

When dealing with items already in the catalog, many headings cannot be changed without reevaluating the item, e.g. the subject Agriculture--Soviet Union--History attached to a book published in 1950 could deal with the period of the Russian Empire. This is because earlier catalogers followed the rule of one geographic area = one heading.

Since reexamination of each item is impossible, inconsistency is inevitable.


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