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Local Practices and Interpretations

Use for citing references or other sources of information about the work. Use the textref element only when the reference provides a unique identifier for the work.

Supported Descendant Elements and Attributes


Use the href attribute to provide a URL linking to an electronic version of the source cited.


Provide a formatted bibliographic citation following the example in the VRA Core element description.


Use refid to provide identifiers for the resource cited.


Always use the type attribute with vra:refid. Choose the most appropriate term from the values provided by the schema. Use "other" when citing a Princeton call number.

XML Examples

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Display Examples

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Content Standards

Described throughout CCO

Other Sources of Documentation

VRA Core 4.0 Element Description and Tagging Examples (p. 26)

MARC Mappings


Mappings from Visuals

REFERENCE, though this doesn't always work. REFERENCE could also be vra:textref or just a reference to another work.