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Local Practices and Interpretations

Use textref only for citing catalogs, inventories, etc. which provide unique identifiers for the work. For all other citations about the work, use the source element. Do not cite the same resource twice (in both textref and source).

Supported Descendant Elements and Attributes


Use this element to record the "short" form of citation if desired.


Use the href attribute to provide a URL linking to an electronic version of the source cited.


Provide a formatted bibliographic citation following the example in the VRA Core element description.


Use refid to provide identifiers for the resource cited.


Always use the type attribute with vra:refid. Choose the most appropriate term from the values provided by the schema.

XML Examples

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Display Examples

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Other Sources of Documentation

VRA Core 4.0 Element Description and Tagging Examples (p. 33)

MARC Mappings


Mappings from Visuals

REFERENCE, though this doesn't always work. REFERENCE could also be vra:source or just a reference to another work.