P. Voorhoeve, 1979
Department of Rare Books and Special Collections
Princeton University Library
A = Codices batacici descr. P. Voorhoeve. Leiden 1977.
B = Batak-Handschriften beschr. Von L. Manik. Wiesbaden 1973.
C = Catalogue of Indonesian Manuscripts. Part 1, Batak Manuscripts by P. Voorhoeve. Copenhagen 1975
E = Indonesian Manuscripts in Great Britain by M.C. Ricklefs and P. Voorhoeve. OUP 1977.
PB = Princeton Batak Manuscript.
Voorhoeve 1934 = De Bataksche handschriften op bombast van het Volkendundig Museum. Mededeeling Kon.Kol.Inst.No.XXXIV, 51ff. Amsterdam.
Voorhoeve 1958 = Batakse buffelwichelarij. BKI 114, 238ff.
Voorhoeve 1969 = "Four Batak Manuscripts in Princeton". The Princeton University Library Chronicle XXX, no.3 (1969), 158ff.
Voorhoeve 1980 = Elio Modigliani's Batak Books. Archivio per l'antropologia e la etnologia, Firenze. (forthcoming)
Winkler 1925 = Die Toba-Batak auf Sumatra in gesunden und kranken Tagen von Joh.Winkler. Stuttgart.
Winkler 1954 = Das Zauberbuch von Batipuh. BKI 110, 335ff.
Winkler 1956 = Pane na Bolon, ein Kriegsorakel der Toba-Batak auf Sumatra. BKI 112, 25ff.
References are to pages, except in B, where they refer to catalog numbers.
In the Catalog, numbers between brackets refer to the Selective subject
|Garrett 7975. Pustaha. 27 leaves, 13.5 x 9 cm. Two wooden covers, one with 2 holes for a string. Northern ta.|
|See Voorhoeve, 1969, 164f. (31)|
|Garrett 9063. Pustaha. 19 leaves, 14 x 13 cm. Two wooden covers. Northern ta.|
|See Voorhoeve, 1969, 165ff. (22)|
|Garrett 9064. Pustaha. 30 leaves, 12.5 x 13.2 cm. Two wooden covers, one damaged. One has four holes with a carrying string which is part modern. One rattan band. Southern ta.|
|See Voorhoeve, 1969, 161 ff. (1g)|
|Scheide MS. Pustaha. 38 leaves, 15.5 x 9.5 cm, the first two incomplete. Np covers. Northern ta.|
|See Voorhoeve, 1969, 167ff, and the second plate. (26)|
|A fake Batak MS. Written on leather in a bamboo tube.|
|See Voorhoeve, 1969, note 16.|
|PB1. Pustaha. 16 leaves, c.24.6 x c.28.5 cm. No covers. Ink of poor quality, coming off on opposite pages. Drawings black and red, but not the genuine Batak red paint; imitated from an old original by an inexperienced draftsman. The copyist apologizes (page a9) for the quality of the bark; he could not find the proper kind of tree. Smooth writing with curvy lines. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: Guru Homitan Ni Aji of the Lontung moiety - Guru Sam - pang Mauli of the clan Siratt in Lumban Gala-gala (the copyist) - Owner's mark (?) in pencil (page b16) Aman Tomu Manurung in (illegible).|
|Contents: Divination, such as sipatama-tama (34), pangarambui (26) and parmula sahit (24).|
|PB 2. Pustaha. 21 leaves, 13.5 x 9.5 cm. Two wooden covers, one with a hole near a corner with a piece of string on which a plaited rattan band is fastened. Drawings black and black/red. Large writing (the width of a ga is 9 mm). Northern ta.|
|Contents: Divination, i.e. pormanuhon (22) and rambu siporha (31).|
|PB 3. Pustaha. 42 leaves, 11.2 x 8 cm. There is glue on the outer leaves but no covers. Drawings black and one black/red.|
|Pedigree: first text Guru Sinaingan Ni Aji in Pangaribuan na bolak - Datu Garaga n.a. - Guru Humutur Ni Aji - Guru So Dumpangon Ni Aji in Lumban Pinasa. Second text: Guru So Juang - Ompu Naga Ni Aji - Guru Humutur Ni Aji - Guru So Dumpangon Ni Aji.|
|Contents: Divination, i.e. Manuk gantung (23), pormanuhon (22) and rambu siporhas (31); magic, i.e. pangulubalang (11).|
|PB 4. Pustaha. 19 leaves, 9 x 6.6 cm. No covers. Drawings black and red. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: the name of the teacher is unclear. The pupil's name is Guru Sinanda Ni Aji.|
|Contents: Magic, i.e. si aji bunga-bunga (15), si rudang gara (17), aji tompul (2).|
|PB 5. Pustaha. 49 leaves, 14 x 12.4 cm. First part severely damaged; only a small fragment of the first leaf is still there. No covers. Drawings black and black/red. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Guru Niantanan Ni Aji - Ompu Raja Debata in Sitorang na godang - Ompu Raja Na Balu, also called Raja Opat Ni Aji, of the clan Napitupulu.|
|Magic: pamunu tanduk (10).|
|PB 6. Pustaha. 33 leaves, 14.6 x 11 cm. Two modern wooden covers. Most of the text is blackened by smoke and illegible. Drawings of black and red. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: part illegible; from Si Manga (ra) Pimtu to Guru Mangadang Ni Aji in Jonggi Ni Huta.|
|Magic: datu madang-adang (3) and si jonggi-jonggi (16); divination: rambu siporhas (31).|
|PB 7. Pustaha. 39 leaves, c.21.5 x 20.2 cm. Two wooden covers, one with four holes with a fragment of a carrying string on which a piece of fur is fastened. One rattan band. Drawings black and white. Decorative borders along both sides of the strip of bark. Some leaves repaired by sewing. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Raja Ulang Lubu from the Batak Toru country, whose village was Longo-longo (primeval forest), Guru Nirodangan of the clan Rarambean - his brother-in-law Bintang Timur Ni Aji - his son-in-law Datu Porgiting (?) of the clan Parapat in Porsambilan - Guru Mangoljo Ni Aji of the clan Silitonga - his grandson Guru Mortuwa Ni Aji of the clan Siagian - his son Guru So Sung-gulon Ni Aji in Lumban Dolok - his brother-in-law Guru Hatahutan Ni Aji of the clan Panjaitan, the copyist. The last pages are written by Aman Jandilan Ni Aji Guru Panguhalan Ni Aji.|
|Medicine: various kinds of taoar (35).|
|PB 8. Bamboo tube, 41.5 x 7 cm. Southern ta.|
|Divination calendar: porhalaan (29).|
|PB 9. Bamboo tube, 34.3 x 4.5 cm. Northern ta.|
|Written for Ompu Lahi Ni Aji.|
|Divination: ari simonang-monang (20) and other methods of choosing lucky days.|
|PB 10. Bamboo tube, 44 x 7 cm. Southern ta.|
|Divination: mula sahit (24).|
|PB 11. Bamboo tube of two internodes, 64 x 6 cm. Southern ta.|
|Magic: a love-philtre, dorma (4).|
|PB 12. Pustaha. 28 leaves, c.11.4 x 8.3 cm. Two wooden covers. Drawings black and red. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: Ompu Ni Mingkara Ni Aji Datu Morle Aji - Guru Pina - inggal Ni Aji.|
|Divination: manuk gantung (23).|
|PB 13. Pustaha. 25 leaves, 9.5 x 7.1 cm. Two wooden covers, painted black. Vignettes black and red. Southern ta.|
|Divination: manuk gantung (23).|
|PB 14. Pustaha. 44 leaves, 11.2 x 8.2 cm. Two wooden covers, on one of them rests of carving. Drawings black, except the large bindu (vignette) at the beginning of the second side, which is black and red.|
|Pedigree: Tuwan Nahoda Pangururan of the clan Simbolon - Raja Sitorgaling Ompun Dugur Ni Aji of the clan Manurung - Guru Tinonahon Ni Aji - Taga Ni Aji - Guru Mangina Ni Aji of the clan Hutajulu from Laguboti - Raja Hutur Laut Ompu Raja Lipan Ni Aji of the clan Panjaitan in Sitorang. The second text from Sinaboru Bunga Pandan in Batak Toru to Guru Mangina Ni Aji.|
|Magic: dorma sihatuit (5); divination: manuk gantung (23).|
|PB 15. Pustaha. 48 leaves, 8.1 x 8.1 cm. Two wooden covers, one with holes for a string. Black drawings. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Tuwan Nahoda Raja from Pangururan - Ompu Ni Pangian of the clan Naiborhu from Uluwan - Ompu Ni Manubung of the clan Siagiyan from Sigumpar - Raja Sumendal of the clan Morpayung from Siantar - Ompu Ni Manalubung of the clan Siagiyan from Sitorang na godang - Ompu Ni Porrungguwan from Palipi, but the pupil for whom the book was written is also called Ompu Ni Mortahan Ni Aji.|
|Prescriptions for making gun-powder: pordahanon sira masiu (36); divination: pormanuhon (22) and other methods.|
|PB 16. Pustaha. 51 leaves, 8.9 x 8.9 cm. No covers. First and last leaves damaged. Some writing rubbed off by use. Black drawings. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: Ompu Ni Mahengkun (read: Manungkun) Tahi Ni Aji - (illegible).|
|Divination: pane na bolon (25).|
|PB 17. Pustaha. 26 leaves, 5.8 x 6.7 cm. No covers. Outside somewhat damaged. Drawings black with some red. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Ompu Ni Pandanggur Ni Aji - his son Guru Panguhala Ni Aji.|
|Divination: manuk di ampang (22).|
|PB 18. Fragments of a pustaha, 11 leaves, c.40 x 22 cm, between two wooden boards of the same size, adorned with carving in the style of the ornamentation of Toba-Batak houses, painted red, black and white. The leaves are joined together with glue and white thread, some are torn, some parts of the text are illegible because the ink is rubbed off by use. Drawings black and red (?). Some pages upside down.|
|The fragments belong to two texts, magic (pangulubalang, 11) and divination (porbuhitan, 28).|
|PB 19-24. Six bamboo tubes, open on one end and with a node at the other end. The nodes have holes in which pieces of string made from the black fibre of the sugar-palm are fastened. The six strings are knotted together.|
|PB 19. 40.5 x 6 cm. Southern ta.|
|Divination: hatiha (21).|
|PB 20. 30 x 5 cm. Southern ta.|
|Divination calendar: porhalaan and divination tables hatiha (21).|
|PB 21. 28.5 x 5.5 cm. Southern ta.|
|Divination: rasiyan (32) and an incantation over a pagar (6).|
|PB 22. 21 x 5 cm.|
|A careless copy of a divination calendar: porhalaan.|
|PB 23. 32.5 x 4.5 cm. Southern ta.|
|Divination: ruji (33).|
|PB 24. 24 x 6 cm.|
|A careless copy of a divination calendar: porhalaan (29).|
|PB 25. Pustaha. 33 leaves, 14.4 x 10.9 cm. Two wooden covers, one old with carving, one new. Holes for a carrying string. Writing obliterated in some places. Drawings black and red. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Sinaboru Suranti from Batak Toru - Si Tuan Humarutur senge-senge ni anak (meaning unknown) Ompu Raja Manonggak bao raja Mandobo - Dari Mangambat Ni Aji - Guru So Malaing Ompu ni Patala Jonggi - Raja Buntu Paung Guru Panguhalan Ni Aji Ompun So Tarduga - Ompu Raja Nadong of the clan Nadiborhu.|
|Divination: pormanuhon (manuk gantung, 23, and manuk di ampa, 22); magic: ponpang sihalung (14); divination: pane na bolon (25).|
|PB 26. Pustaha. 21 leaves, 13 x 11.2 cm. Two modern wooden covers. A large drawing extending over seven pages, black and red. Part illegible. Southern ta.|
|Divination: aji payung (18) and rasiyan ni anak tubu (32).|
|PB 27. Pustaha. 53 leaves, c.22 x 18 cm. Leaves askew. Two wooden covers, one with holes for a string. One or two leaves missing at the beginning. Southern ta. Numerous drawings, black and red.|
|Pedigree: Incomplete. Ompu ni Si pange… anak na di Ambaton in Porsambilan Bonan Dolok - Ompun Sordit Ni Aji in Si Batak Kola, also called Guru Maguyang Aji, grandson of Datu Manggiling of the clan Pane Na Bolon.|
|Magic: panuruni (13).|
|PB 28. Pustaha. 46 leaves, c.14.5 x c.13 cm. Carelessly folded bark. Two wooden covers, painted black. Drawings black and red. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: First text Ompu Ni Batubara - Guru Panaehan Ni Aji - Datu Pangarambu Ni Aji. Second text: Na Gara Di Langit, sister of Iman Patuwan from Djau Godang - Guru Mangaleyang Ni Aji of the clan Nadapdap from Urat - Raja Balahuta Ni Aji of the clan Manurung - Guru Sabungan Ni Aji. Third text: Ompu Ni Bingkara - Ompu Ni Manalubung Aman Sompa Oloan of the clan Manurung from Naruma(m)bing and Datu Pormanuk Ama Ni Hombar Raja.|
|Magic: aji habonaran (1), pagar (6) and pangulubalang pamo(l)tong (12).|
|PB 29. Pustaha. 48 leaves, c.19 x 12 cm. Two wooden covers, painted black, one of them with a carrying string fasted in four holes. Two rattan bands. Black drawings. Soutehrn ta.|
|Pedigree: So Marala Ni Aji in Banuwa Raya - his brother-in-law. Copyist Guru Laling Ni Aji in Simadihon.|
|Divination: porhalaan (29); magic: pagar (6) and pamunu tanduk (10).|
|PB 30. Pustaha. 28 leaves, c.14 x 11.8 cm. Two modern wooden covers painted black. Drawings black and red. Careless writing. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: the order of the names is not clear. From Datu I(n)dar Malau Guru Iyang Debata to Datu Losa Ni Aji (and?) Toga Ni Aji. Copyist Guru Saniang Naga Ni Aji from Hatinggian Lumban Manurung; also mentioned is Tano Sibuttuon.|
|Magic: pagar (6) and pangulubalang (11).|
|PB 31. Pustaha. 65 leaves, c.24.8 x 18.2 cm. Two wooden covers, one with four holes in which parts of a string are still fastened. Traces of carving. Drawings black and red. Part of the text discoloured and difficult to read. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: first text Datu Sarumpaet - Na Pitu Hali Datu (i.e. the seven times initiated datu) - Singa Mortandang - Guru Sambowawang(?) - Guru Agak - Guru Medan Ni Aji of the clan Angkat - Ompu Raja Harngguwan Ni Aji - Raja Piniliyan Ni Aji anak na di Ambaton in Rahut Bosi - Sihaloho (the name of a clan) Raja Humaruyur Ni Aji anak na di Suwanon in Dolok Sait (or Siat Ni Huta). Second text Guru Sampang Mauli - Guru Dan… Ni Aji - Datu So Maila anak na di Ambaton in Simanindo - Raja Piniliyan - Raja Humariyur (the copyist).|
|Divination: rambu siporhas (31); porbuhitan (28).|
|PB 32. Pustaha. 67 leaves, 16.5 x 9.5 cm. No covers. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: (parts illegible) Tuwan Musa on Pulo Masiyang in the sea - Guru Legang Ni Aji - Guru So Sunggulon Ni Aji - Guru Malegang Ni Aji - Guru Sinambingan Ni Aji - Guru Sinomba Ni Aji of the clan Sitohang Lumban Taruwan in Silombu Lumban Sibabiyat. Copied by Guru Pinajolo Ni Aji in Sibisa.|
|Miscellaneous contents, mainly magic, e.g. pagar buruk (7) and medicine (taoar, 35).|
|PB 33. Pustaha. 45 leaves, 23 x 16 cm. Two new wooden covers, painted dark. The beginning and the end of the strip of bark are missing; two written pages are glued to the covers. Drawings black and red. One side southern ta, the other side northern ta.|
|Pedigree: on the side with the southern ta there are three pedigrees, all ending with Datu Horbo Ni Aji. He learned the instructions from 1. Guru So Biasan - Ompu Ni Panigogoan Ni Aji - Guru Manuntun Ni Aji. 2. Guru Hapoan - Raja Ngantoan Ni Aji - Raja Matoga Ni Aji - Guru Manuntun Ni Aji. 3. Ompu Ni Arimo - Guru Manundut Ni Aji - Raja Humortak Ni Aji.|
|One the side with the northern ta there is one long pedigree: a man of the clan Na di Borhu (or: a man in old times) from the other side of the ocean - Datu Morladu Ni Aji - Datu Garaga Ni Aji - Ompu Ni Mangadang Ni Aji - Guru So Halompoan Ni Aji - Ompu Ni Ahar (or more probably Niatur) Ni Aji of the clan Siregar Silali from Pangaribuan - Guru So Ambangon Ni Aji of the clan Pordede in tapiannauli - Datu Hilap Ni Aji - Guru Manubung Ni Aji - Ompu Doangsa (or Doas? Or Dohas?) Ni Aji - Guru Panggilingan Ni Aji in Tapiannauli - Guru Morta(?)han(?) Ni Aji of the clan Simangunsong in Haorotan.|
|The first side had two texts on divination (manuk gantung, 23) and two on magic (pagar, 6, and pangulubalang, 11).|
|The second side has some fragmentary texts and after that one long text on manuk gantung (23).|
|PB 34. Pustaha. The main part of this manuscript are the two fin wooden covers, 42 x 34 cm, one of them with 4 holes, in which a black carrying-string is fastened, and carved with the figure of a lizard, 2 cm thick and 28 cm long. There are two rattan bands. The bark of the book is of a light colour, folded to make 21 leaves, c.37 x 31 cm. In the text there are two handwritings. One hand has written pp. a 2-20, b 2-6 and b18-20; the other hand b 7-16. The first scribe has used spotty native black ink and a red colour which may be watercolour or red ink from a bottle bought in a shop. The text is a modern copy of an old manuscript, including black and red drawings, some rather course, some faighfully copied from the original. The northern ta is used. The second scribe wrote nonsense. He used a steel pen and ink from a bottle, some syllables are upside down, the illustrations have nothing to do with any Batak style. One of them is a large naturalistic drawing of a bat. In the final drawing by the first scribe some yellow paint is used.|
|Divination: porbuhitan (spelt parbuitan), 28. In the part of the text written by the second scribe some fragments of a tale about the Batak trickster Si Jonaha may be discerned, and a drawing of his labyrinthine wall.|
|33 PB 35. A bamboo tube of three internodes, c.113 x 7.5 cm.|
|Magic: incantations for pangulubalang (11).|
|198 PB 36. Pustaha. 63 leaves, 16.2 x 12.2 cm. No covers. Drawings black and red. Northern ta.|
|Pedigreee: Guru So Tadingon Hata Ni Aji - Ompu Taronggal(?) Hata Ni Aji - Ompu Ronggur Guru Humuntal Hata Ni Aji - three pupils called Guru Juara Hata Ni Aji, Aman Tuan Na Bolon Datu Tora and Datu Selam Ni Aji.|
|Magic: (pagar) sipiuwan na bolon (9). Though the text on the second side of the bark begins at the same end of the strip as the first side it is the continuation of that side.|
|113 PB 37. Pustaha. 46 leaves, 16.5 x 14.5 cm. Two wooden covers, one with four holes for a string; a piece of rattan remains in two of the holes. There is one rattan band, nearly broken. Some joints of the bark are broken and wrongly sewn together, so that it is difficult to find one's way through the text. Drawings black and red. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Guru Nilanggean Datu Morsuda Ompan, whose younger brother was Datu Sampar Ni Begu - Ompun So Iloan Ni Aji Guru Sabungan NI Aji of the clan Sihotang in Nagatimbul - Guru Hasiyan Ni Aji of the clan Malayu in Simbolon - Ompu Raja Na Balluk Ni Aji - the copyist Guru Huliman Ni Aji from Sipultak.|
|Divination: rambu siporhas; magic: pagar pangorom (8).|
|PB 38. Pustaha. 41 leaves, 29.5 x c.20 cm. Two wooden covers, one modern and warped, both painted black. The writing has vanished in some places. Some illustrations. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: (some names have been tampered with) Guru Tandang Ni Aji of the clan Kudadiri in Hanopan - Guru So Baluwang Ni Aji Ompu Ni Pangarambu in Simbolon - (unclear) - (A?)ma Singgur - Guru Tinandangan - Namora Haribunan - Ompu Ni Pangarambu - (name erased, changed to) pormangsi Manurung di Sibatu - Pangandosan Ni Aji of the clan Sibarutu in Pakpak. In the last text the chain of transmission is continued to Guru So Dumpangon of the clan Nadibaho - (name erased).|
|Divination: rambu siporhas (31) and magic: panuruni (13) and pangulubalang (11).|
|PB 39. Pustaha. 51 leaves, c.24.5 x 19.4 cm. Two wooden covers, one with four holes for a string; in two of these there is a rest of black string. In the middle of this cover a human molar is fixed. Some of the writing has become illegible. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: from the land (of) Sibeyak Huta Bangun, from Naboru Alas across the ocean - Guru Manalom Debata Ni Aji from Garingging - Guru Sombaon Hata Ni Aji from Limbong Mulana - Guru Mortiyang Hata Ni Aji in Tapiannauli - Si Mortiyang Raja Guru Hasongtiyan Hata Ni Aji and Ompu Ronggang Na Bolon in Sipitu Huta (the order of the names is not certain).|
|Magic: miscellaneous texts, e.g. paralamaton (27).|
|PB 40. Pustaha. 25 leaves, 17.8 x 25.8. Two warped wooden covers, blackened with paint. Holes for a string, of which a fragment still remains. Drawings black and red. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: Ompu Ni Manungkun Tahi - Ompu Ni Mangiring Ni Aji and Guru So Matahut Ni Aji - Guru Tumanggu Ni Aji of the clan Sihotang Sitorban Dolok - Ompun Tor Na (U)li, chief of Siamak Pandan - three pupils: Guru Tor Na Uli Hata Ni Aji, Datu Parjaga Ni Aji and Guru Parjaban Ni Aji. Copied by Guru Tumanggu.|
|Divination: pane na bolon (25).|
|125 PB 41. Pustaha. 25 leaves, 19.5 x 17.2 cm. Covers lost. Black drawings. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Datu Tala Di Babana of the clan Nadiborhu from Sianjur - Guru Pinajingjing of the clan Pardede Onan - Guru Sinanti of the clan Simanjuntak in Lintong Ni Huta - Guru Pamogang Ni Aji. Two other names are mentioned: Raja Galenja Ni Aji and Guru Sahalana of the clan Pasaribu; their connection with the chain of transmission is not clear.|
|Divination: pormanuhon (manuk di ampang, 22).|
|104 PB 42. Pustaha. 14 leaves, 12 x 9.5 cm. No covers. Black vignettes. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Datu Sinangbela - Dari So Ambaton Ni Aji - Guru Tinoloan - Guru Panga…(illegible) Ni Aji of the clan Siagian - Guru Junujung Ni Aji of the clan Pane.|
|Divination: manuk gantung (23).|
|153 PB 43. Pustaha. 19 leaves, 7.6 x 5.5 cm. Two wooden covers, one with protective carvings. Drawings black and red. Southern ta.|
|Pedigree: Raja Mornangkok Ni Aji - Guru Mauli Ni Aji of the clan Simatupang Borutorop from Simorpinggan - Guru Mangarimpun or Mangarimpung Ni Aji in Natuminha, the copyist - Guru Suleman Ni Aji in Natuminha.|
|Divination: aji payung (18).|
|192 PB 44. Pustaha. 42 leaves, 11.4 x 10.4 cm. Two wooden covers, one with two holes in which a strip of red cotton is fastened as a carrying-string. Some folds broken and sewn. Drawings black and red. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: Datu Tala di Babana of the clan Nadiborhu - Nai Boru Sibana from across the ocean - Guru Sumirlam of the clan Manurung from Uluwan - Guru Hasiholan from Bangkara - Datu Lopak of the clan Lumban Toruan in Lumban Gaol - Ompu Ni Barani Tunggal, who made some additions to the text - two pupils Ama Raja Ihutan Guru So Boluson of the clan Lumban Toruan and Ama Ni Pangurati, both in Lobu Sonak.|
|Divination: pormanuhon (manuk di ampang, 22).|
|109 PB 45. Pustaha. 27 leaves, 24.7 x 14.5-15 cm. Two modern wooden covers, painted black. Drawings black and red. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: Datu Tala Di Babana is mentioned as the origin of the pormanuhon. Further: Guru Humulan Ni Aji of the clan Sitorus - Guru Sabungan Ni Aji of the clan Manurung in Sihubak-hubak - Guru Tahal (onee: Sahala) Ni Aji of the clan Manik Matondang.|
|Different texts on the two sides of the bark. It is impossible to say which was written first. One side divination: rambu siporhas (31) and some shorter texts; on the other side: manuk di ampang (22).|
|PB 46 Pustaha 25 leaves, 12.5 x 7 cm.; many leaves lost at the beginning. Two wooden covers, one old with carved decoration, one modern. Only the old cover has holes for a carrying string, which is lost. Drawings of pormanuhon black and red, of panampuhi black only. Northern ta.|
|Pedigree: missing, because the first part is lost. Written by Guru Tuhason anak na di Ambaton in Porbaba (North Samosir) for Medang ni adji, whose pupil was Tijap ni adji.|
|Two texts: panampuhi (the lemon oracle, not mentioned in the selective subject index) pp. a 1-24, b 10-1; promanuhon (22) pp. b 25-10|
1. Aji habonaran PB 28. See C 196b.
2. Aji tompul PB 4. See Voorhoeve 1934, 62, no. 137/559.
3. Datu madang-adang PB 6. See C 119a.
4. Dorma, a love-philtre PB 11. See Winkler 1925 Index dorma II.
5. Dorma sihatuit, alluring magic made from hatuit-birds PB 14. See Winkler 1925 Index dorma I.
6. Pagar, protective magic PB 21, 28, 29, 30, 33. See Winkler 1925 Index.
7. Pagar buruk PB 32. See C 100a.
8. Pagar pangorom PB 37. See A 69, 70, 71, 95, 290, 291, 292.
9. Pagar sipiuwan na bolon PB 36. See A 42.
10. Pamunu tanduk PB 5, 29. See C Index.
11. Pangulubalang, aggressive magic PB 3, 18, 30, 33, 35, 38. See Winkler 1925 Index.
12. Pangulubalang pamoltong PB 28. See A 46, C 164b, E 24b.
13. Panuruni PB 27, 38. See Voorhoeve 1980.
14. Pongpang sihalung PB 25. Cf.B 343, 453.
15. Si aji bunga-bunga PB 4. Cf.A 286.
16. Si jonggi-jonggi PB 6. Cf.B 18.
17. Si rudang gara PB 4. See C 89.
18. Aji paying, pig- and dog-divination PB 26, 43. See C 141.
19. Ari rojang, the lunar mansions Garrett Mandailing.
20. Ari simonang-monang, a method of choosing "winning" days PB 9.
21. Hatiha, a divination table PB 19, 20.
22. Manuk di ampang, see parmanuhon Garrett Purba, PB 2, 3, 15, 17, 25, 41, 44, 45. See C 149ff.
23. Manuk gantung, see parmanuhon PB 3, 12, 13, 14, 25, 33, 42. See Winkler 1925 Index.
24. Mula sahit or parmaula sahit, a method of finding out the cause of an illness PB 1, 10. See E Index, Batak MSS.
25. Pane na bolon, divination from the motion of the Great Dragon PB 16, 25, 40. See Winkler 1956.
26. Pangarambui, divination from the motion of rambu, signs in the sky, probably originally constellations Scheide MS, PB 1.
27. Paralamaton, divination(?) to protect the warriors PB 39.
28. Parbuhitan, buffalo-divination PB 18, 31, 34. See Voorhoeve 1958.
29. Parhalaan, the divination calendar PB 8, 22, 24, 29. See Winkler 1925 Index s.v.Kalender.
30. Parmanuhon, divination with a fowl. There are at least two methods. In one the fowl is slaughtered and left to die under a basket. Omens are taken from the position in which it is found when the basket is lifted. This is called manuk di ampang, q.v. The second method is called the hanging fowl, manuk gantung, q.v. After the chicken is cut open omens are observed inside its body.
31. Rambu siporhas, divination with a double string Garrett Toba, PB 2, 3, 6, 31, 37, 38, 45. See Winkler 1954; C 145ff.
32. Rasiyan(ni anak tubu) PB 21, 26. See C Index s.v.rasijan.
33. Ruji, divination with sticks PB 23. See C 190a.
34. Sipatama-tama, some method of choosing lucky times PB 1.Cf.B 408.
35. Taoar PB 7, 32.
36. Pardahanon sira masiu, making gun-powder PB 15.
p. 166 line 12 - line 26 read: He taught it to Pande (Radja)(cf. MS. Leiden Or.3462) of the marga Pohan Pandjaitan. He taught it to Guru Humuntal Radja Par(tingg)ilan (Leiden: Guru Partinggilan) ni adji Namora Simatupang (i.e. of the non-reigning marga Simatupang). He taught it to Guru Hapea ni adji of the marga Sihombing Lumban Toruan. He taught it to Guru So Masangkut ni adji of the marga Samusir (usually called Samosir) who lived in the village (Pe)ja Radja that belongs to the marga Simanullang Lumban na Mungkut. He taught it to his brother-in-law Datu Ronggur ni adji. His marga is indicated (rather than named) by the words anak na di Tungkaon. He lived in Lumban Gaon (= Lumban Gaol), and was the son of Ompung Djumahat ni adji.
p. 167 after line 9 add: MS.Or.3462 in the Leiden University Library has the same chain of transmission up to Datu Ronggur ni adji. It was copied by the pupil of one of his pupils. This MS was collected by Van der Tuuk c.1855. Therefore the Garrett Purba MS, copied by an immediate pupil of Datu Ronggur ni adji, must be older than c. 1830.
p. 168 line 21 Djura read Djuara.
Between 168 and 169, in the caption of the datu's portrait, line 5, read Princess Juliana instead of Princess Beatrix (with apologies to the Royal Family); line 8 the complete name is Sorbaradja Saragih Simarmata.
p. 170 line 4. In C 46 I have surmised that Guru Mangina ni adji marga Hutadjulu in Lobu Goti or Laguboti lived in the last part of the 18th century and that the adventures of his pupil Ompu Radja Debata, narrated in the introduction to the Scheide manuscript, may have happened c.1800.
p. 170 the vignette at the end is upside down (the curled dragon's tongue which marks the beginning is Northeast).
For shortness sake I use the word "pedigree" in this catalog instead of "chain of transmission", though these lists of teachers are not "family trees" and a certain number of links in such a chain does not necessarily represent the same number of generations.
PB 14. According to the chain of transmission this is a pustaha written for one of the pupils fo the wandering datu Guru Mangina ni aji of the marga Hutajulu, who came from Laguboti. This Guru Mangina ni aji was also the teacher of the man who wrote the Scheide MS for his son. However, it is peculiar that Guru Mangina's village is called Laguboti, not Lobu Goti as in most of the older texts. Perhaps PB 14 is a later copy in which the pedigree was taken over without continuing it until the last copyist.
The text on dorma sihatuit is not known from other MSS. We have therefore transliterated most of it. It is a kind of alluring magic, not only to be used as a love-philtre for a girl, but also to win the favor of a prince, or of a young man, or to hold back a domestic slave (sinonduk hatoban) from running away, or to tame a wild horse or a wild buffalo. For this purpose a small bird of the species called hatuit is caught in a snare (dajarani, for dajarati?), tethered (daboron, for daborot) to its nest with its young, and reared until the young are fledgelings (murun tano habong). Ultimately these birds are not sent on a romantic mission to the beloved girl, but reduced to ashes as an ingredient of the magic concoction called dorma.
PB 15. Texts on the making of gun-powder mostly contain little more than lists of omens which can be observed in the process. They are of the same kind as the goldsmith's manual published in C 124ff. Our text is exceptional, as it gives some real prescriptions on how to make powder. Some of the technical terms used are not in the dictionaries and are clearly of foreign origin (e.g. air tota, in which air may be the Malay word for water, but tota is unexplained).
PB 16 and PB 40. There is a great deal of agreement between the texts of these two MSS on the Great Dragon and also with the Leiden MS Or.3561 (see A 88f). Some parts of the text are also found in B 453 and in Leiden MS Or.3447. See the table on p. 15 above.
PB 36. This text on pagar sipiuwan na bolon, a kind of protective magic, can be compared with other texts on the same subject, e.g. Leiden MS Or. 3465 (see A 42ff) and Manchester Batak 2 (see E 15a). These texts contain long invocations of former rulers and sorcerers. The names of the persons to whom one of these incantations is addressed are mentioned in A 42-44. An illustration showing the bamboo pole on which it is written is reproduced in Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, vol. 33, plate 4 between p. 296 and 297. The names in PB 36 are absolutely different from those mentioned in the Leiden MS 3465, but they are the same as those in the chain of transmission in the Manchester MS and in a MS containing texts on other subjects (not on pagar sipiuwan) in Amsterdam, Tropical Institute 543/2. It is not clear how this identity should be explained. Perhaps a further study of al the relevant texts may lead to a solution of this problem. On pp. 16-18 above a synopsis of the names in the incantation of PB 36 and the chains of transmission in Leiden Or.3465 and Manchester Batak 2 is given.
PB 39. The full title of the main text is: Poda ni hata-hata ni pamusatan ni paralamaton ni pamuhunan ma inon na manjadihon porhobalon ni paranganta. Instructions concerninga short text on signs to be observed in connexion with the science of lengthening life, which causes invulnerableness of our warriors. There is a parallel text in MS. Jakarta, Central Museum D2, transliterated in Vt.162. A photocopy of the transliteration is in Leiden University Library MS.Or.14280, and the description of p.3-24 of this text in A 272f. for the major part applies to PB 39. The origin of the two MSS as indicated in the chain of transmission is the same: from the Sibayak of Kuta Banguin in the Karo-Batak region to Guru Manalom Debata in Garingging (this is the correct form, as supposed in A 272, for Garinggang of the Jakarta transcription). Both MSS have an incantation addressed to seven (not six, as I said in A 273) powers in a Toba-ized Karo-Batak dialect. I think that my hypothesis that these powers are the seven tondi ("souls") of man, or in material manifestation the afterbirth etc., is strengthened by the PB text. As in the Jakarta text, the alamat ("signs") are of minor importance; the main subject of this and the following texts is protective magic for the warriors.
There is another version of the incantation the seven powers in PB 11. It is in (unidiomatic) Toba-Batak, and does not mention the Karo-Batak origin. The names of the powers are different in the three versions.