Chinese Studies

Core Resources

China Academic Journals (CNKI) 1915+

More than 8,000 current PRC journals in humanities, social and exact sciences fully searchable (text delivered may be image-only). Most journals are available from 1994, and many from their first issue, as early as 1915.

CNKI Journal Translation Project

English translations from prominent Chinese articles in many fields, from humanities and social sciences to exact sciences including medicine. Also arranged according to current hot topics. The Chinese originals are also included.


Content-based database searching full-text Chinese books, articles, theses, web pages, newspapers. Results are readable on-line, or sendable by email to oneself. See fuller Duxiu explanations on EAL pages. 


Trial access to 2.5 million+ Chinese ebooks in and out of copyright. Individual registration required. For detailed instructions, see entry on the East Asian Library pages.

Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS) 1971+

Records on all subjects (especially humanities and social sciences) pertaining to East, Southeast, and South Asia published worldwide in Western languages. Includes chapters in edited volumes, conference proceedings, etc.

Chinese-English Dictionary Online

Up-to date dictionary for Classical Chinese usage from 500 BCE to 1000 CE, compiled by Paul Kroll and many other specialists.

Oxford Bibliographies: Chinese Studies

Annotated bibliographies of the most recent and authoritative Chinese studies scholarship.

National Social Sciences Database (China)

Free database of government-funded Chinese social sciences journals. Coverage varies, but includes in all cases 2012+.

China Digital Library (Apabi)

China Digital Library from Apabi is a database collection of Chinese eBooks, reference works, newspapers and images. eBooks are viewed in a special reader application with many useful features for browsing, organizing, and marking up text. Newspapers and eBooks are also cataloged individually in the library catalog.

Chinese Reference Online (CNKI)

One of two Chinese reference databases. Use in conjunction with Chinese Reference Online (Apabi). For details and contents, see the EAL pages.

Brill's Encyclopedia of China

Basic introductory encyclopedia to (largely modern) China.

WiseSearch 1998+

News items from over 1,500 newspapers and other media sources from the Greater China region, both national, provincial and regional. Some English-language sources from Asia are included, as is company news. See the EAL pages for more info.

Periopath/ Taiwan qikan lunwen suoyin 1970+

Indexes 2 million articles, including Western ones, published in Taiwan.

Taiwan Electronic Periodicals Service (Airiti Library)

Digital archive and recent issues of several hundred Taiwanese periodicals in various subjects. Majority of the journals included are covered for 2000 on-wards, some journals have digital issues going back to the mid-20th century. Even includes some 1930s journals.

Quan guo bao kan suo yin 1833+

Index to article authors and titles compiled by the Shanghai Library. Most articles are downloadable as full-image pdfs.

Zhongwen baike dacidian (Chinese Encyclopedic Dictionary)

Taiwanese Chinese illustrated encyclopedic dictionary

Chinese Doctor and Master Dissertations

Selected dissertations and theses from the PRC; literature, history and philosophy only.

Grand Ricci Online

The most comprehensive bilingual dictionary of Chinese, into French, available.

Diaolong database collection

This database of Classical Chinese Texts gives access to various sub-databases including Daoist scriptures (Zhengtong daozang), manuscript collections from Dunhuang, the Imperial Encyclopedia (Yongle dadian), the Imperial Library (Gu jin tushu jicheng), historical material on the Qing dynasty, a collection of old Japanese books, the two collectanea Sibu congkan and Sibu beiyao, the Siku quanshu, the Xuxiu siku quanshu, the Siku catalog, banned books from the Siku, and supplemental texts to the Siku.

Current Digest of the Chinese Press 2012+

Weekly collection of Chinese press materials in English translation. Covers politics, international relations, security, economics, business, public health, environment, education, and culture. Articles originate from major state news sources.  All articles are full-text searchable.

China Research Gateway (CRG)

China Research Gateway (CRG) gives access to databases published by the Chinese academic publisher CNKI. It includes scholarly journals, monographs, reference works, statistical publications, government documents, newspapers, dissertations, conference proceedings, patents, standards, images, and videos in a wide variety of fields including STEM, the Social Science, and the Humanities.

Cambridge Histories Online

Full text reference works from Cambridge University Press in history and other fields.

EPS China Statistics (English version)

Consists of 79 statistical datasets covering China’s population census (1953-2020), micro-census (1995-2015),  Industrial / Economic census (1985-2018), agricultural census (1996-2016), macro economy, financial markets, industry, trade, resources, and social statistics. The database has a particularly strong focus on city and county statistics. It allows creation of charts and maps and simple analysis. Data can be individually selected and downloaded in various formats: Statistics (Excel), charts (JPEG), maps (Excel, PDF, JPEG). 

Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature Online: A Research Guide

Reference guide on Chinese literature from ca. 700 B.C.E. to the early seventh century C.E. Alphabetically organized, it contains entries on major and minor writers, literary forms and Chinese literary terms. Includes detailed bibliographic and source information.

Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han and Xin Periods (221 BC - AD 24) Online

Biographical reference work for early China with almost 6,500 entries compiled by Michael Loewe. The work draws on primary historical sources as interpreted by Chinese, Japanese and Western scholars and is supplemented by archaeological finds and inscriptions

Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23 – 220 AD) Online

Biographical reference work for early China this biographical dictionary complements Michael Loewe's acclaimed Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han and Xin Periods (2000). Compiled by Rafe de Crespigny, the dictionary includes more than 8,500 biographical entries based on historical records and surviving inscriptions. The entries, including surnames, personal names, styles and dates, are accompanied by maps, genealogical tables and indexes.

Zhongguo fang zhi ku

Database of pre-modern Chinese local gazetteers. Use the heji/combined icon.

Supplementary Resources

Lidai biejiku: Ming qian, Ming

The Lidai bieji ku consists of the collected poetry writings of individuals before 1644. Currently Princeton users have access to 4,000 titles of pre-Ming and Ming authors.

Academia Sinica Scripta Sinica (Hanji quanwen ziliaoku)

Very large database of Chinese works compiled by the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica in Taiwan. Browse subjects and titles using the traditional Chinese siku classification.

Apabi Newspaper database

Set of Chinese newspapers in original format, first date included differs, most start around 2010.

Apabi Tupianku (image) database

Chinese images in the categories of Chinese art, calligraphy, folk art, red (i.e. socialist) art, unearthed objects, old photographs, ancient design, modern graphic design, historical costumes, rare book illustrations, classical painting manuals, typography, and pattern design.

Archives Unbound

Digital collections of historical material on many topics. Includes manuscripts, printed books and periodicals, and government documents. Material comes from the U.S. National Archives, the U.K. National Archives, and many other libraries and archives.

Bianjiang lishi dili = Historical Geography of (China’s) Borderlands

The database collects full-text  historical textual material on the Chinese borderlands dating from the Ming Dynasty to the Republic in the punctuated editions by Zhonghua shuju. It also gives access to Republican monographs, periodicals and government gazettes on the border regions.

China Comprehensive Gazetteers (1229-1949)

Database, largely full-text searchable database of 7,000 Chinese local gazetteers from the National Library of China.

China Economic and Social Data Platform (CNKI, in Chinese)

This database allows cross yearbook indicator searches and online map generation based on the statistical data originating from the officially published Chinese Statistical Yearbooks. Both functions are not available in the original China Statistical Yearbooks Database (CNKI).

China Economy, Public Policy, and Security Database

All collected volumes of papers called pishu(皮书) from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), published by the Social Science Academic Press (SSAP). Useful for researchers in the economic, political and social sciences of China.

China Government Gazettes

A collection of political newspapers, bulletins, announcements, regulations, proclamations, government reports, white papers, and leader speeches from Chinese central and local government publications. Subjects covered include politics, law, military and national defense, rural management and agriculture, industry, transportation, finance, education, science and technology, and tourism. In Chinese.

China Multilingual Journals (CMJ)

Chinese journals meant for foreign consumption. Includes Qiushi, Beijing review.

China Statistical Yearbooks Database (CNKI)

Large selection of statistical data published by the Chinese government including census data. Chinese-language version offers more up-to-date and reliable results; best to use the yearbook navigation mode.

China Vitae

Detailed biographies of nearly 2500 Chinese leaders, searchable by name, institution, or location. Other tools allow identification of similarities in the backgrounds of officials and tracking of daily appearances of 200 of the most important officials.

China, America and the Pacific

Material from many libraries and archives that explores the trading and cultural relationships that emerged between China, America and the Pacific region between the 18th and early 20th centuries.

China: Trade, Politics and Culture, 1793-1980

English-language textual and visual sources relating to China and the West, with key documents relating to the Chinese Maritime Customs service, letters, diaries, color paintings, maps, drawings, photographs, and fully searchable missionary periodicals such as the Chinese Recorder, from mainly British libraries.

China: Culture and Society (1750-1929)

Database of often colorful pamphlets held at Cornell University, written mostly in English.

Chinese Ancient Texts (CHANT) databases.

Full-text access to all traditional texts from the pre-Han (before AD 220) period up to the Six Dynasties (AD 581). More than 30 million characters. Authoritative editions.

Chinese Civil War and U.S.-China Relations

Records from the U.S. State Department's Office of Chinese Affairs.

Chinese Civilization in Time and Space.

Web-based GIS system with historical maps, integrated with full-text databases from the Academia Sinica. Can be used without registration, but personal registration (free to Princeton users) is recommended for saving and printing. Download of two special plug-ins is necessary before first use.

Chinese Electronic Theses and Dissertations Service

Selected dissertations and theses from various universities in Taiwan, as well as Hong Kong university. Starting date varies.

Chinese Film and Newsreel Scripts from the Cultural Revolution Online

Chinese language transcripts of documentary films and newsreels from China, mainly from the Cultural Revolution.

Chinese Social Science (Press) eBook Library

The e-Book library provides access to eBooks published by the Chinese Social Science Press. Searches for books, book chapters, articles and illustrations are possible. Princeton users have access to a selection of titles.

Chugoku kankei ronsetsu shiryo sakuin.

Searchable index to the printed collection, which includes reduced copies of articles on China in less common Japanese academic journals.

Da gong bao (Ta Kung Pao, L’impartial)

All editions of this important pro-communist newspaper (Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, Hankou, Hong Kong, Guilin) are included. Full-text search; results are available in snippets or full page pdf.

Dacheng lao jiu qi kan

Historical Chinese-language periodicals published in China in the humanities, social sciences, and the exact sciences, as well as popular journals.

Digital Dictionary of Buddhism

Has in addition to Chinese, Japanese and Korean information, also Indian, Tibetan and other references.

Digital library of Chinese Rare Books

A collaborative digitization project, sponsored by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation which includes Chinese rare books from four libraries: the Library of Congress, Princeton University, Harvard University, and the Fu Ssu-Nien Library of the Academia Sinica in Taiwan. Freely available.

Diplomacy and Political Secrets

Documents on some Chinese frontier regions  from the perspective of British India.

Dissertation Abstracts (ProQuest Dissertations & Theses: Full Text)

Access to citations and abstracts for every title in the Dissertation Abstracts database. Dissertations written from 1997 forward are available full text. The database includes citations to dissertations from 1861 to those accepted last semester. Citations for dissertations and master's theses published from 1980 forward have abstracts. Simple bibliographic citations are available for dissertations dating from 1637.

Electronic Siku Quanshu

Complete contents, in full text and image, of the 3460+ titles of the Wenyuange edition of the Siku Quanshu (1782), with 800 million characters (183 CD ROMs). Includes also such large compilations as the Quan Tang shi, Zizhi tongjian, Xu zizhi tongjian changbian, Wenxuan, Peiwen yunfu, Taiping yulan or the 25 Histories. For best use, consult the guide available on the EAL Web pages.

EPS China Data (Chinese Version)

Consists of 79 statistical datasets covering China’s population census (1953-2020), micro-census (1995-2015),  Industrial / Economic census (1985-2018), agricultural census (1996-2016), macro economy, financial markets, industry, trade, resources, and social statistics. The database has a particularly strong focus on city and county statistics. It allows creation of charts and maps and simple analysis. Data can be individually selected and downloaded in various formats: Statistics (Excel), charts (JPEG), maps (Excel, PDF, JPEG).


Full-text of many major national and regional newspapers, including the full-text of the Wall Street Journal, Barron's, and the Nikkei Weekly. Some titles are abstracted only. Includes selected full-text and abstracts of many industry and general interest publications. For non-English, choose appropriate language.

Fojiao Jingdian ku (Buddhist Classics Database)

The database gives full-text access to collections of Buddhist scriptures. It currently includes the Qisha Song Tripitaka and the Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka.

Foreign Office Files for China, 1919-1980

Digitized images of British Foreign Office files dealing with China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. 

Grand Secretariat Archives (Neige daku dang’an)

Full text images of hundreds of thousands of government documents from the Ming and Qing dynasties held at the Academia Sinica, searchable by official, title, matter and document number. To login please click “licensed usage” on the entry website of the database.

Guang ming ri bao

Browsable and searchable version of the influential Chinese central government newspaper targeting intellectuals

Han, Wei, Liu Chao Stone Inscriptions Database

Stone inscriptions dating from Han dynasty to the six dynasties collected from a variety of sources, full-text searchable, but copying of text is only possible via a pop-up that will show when a section of text is marked. Where available images of rubbings have been added and can be viewed side by side with the text.

History of Contemporary Chinese Political Movements

Primary sources on the Chinese Cultural Revolution, the Anti-Rightist Campaign, the Great Leap Forward and the Great Famine, and other related campaigns. Titles searchable in Chinese and English.

Hong Kong, Britain and China

Collection of British government documents on colonial Hong Kong.

Hongkong Weekly Press Online

English-language weekly newspaper published between 1890 and 1945. This online collection includes issues published from 1920 to 1929 as full-text searchable scans.

Huan qiu shi bao

Chinese newspaper with international focus, published under auspices of the People's Daily. Also known as Global Times. Use IE.

Jie fang jun bao

Full-text, no images.

Jinshi Examination Database

The database records information on all Jinshi degree holders throughout Chinese history and provides information about their regional and ancestral origin. Accurate and fuzzy searches by regional origin, dynasty, year of degree, last name, etc. are possible. Each entry lists historical sources for the recorded information. A number of options for statistical analysis are also provided (see the database help page).

Late Qing and Republican-Era Chinese Newspapers (CRL)

Collection of thirteen Republican newspapers from Beijing, Chongqing, Hankou, Jiaodong (Shandong) and Shanghai covering the period of 1911-1949.

Law Info China/ China Law Info

Also known as Beida fabao, or  Chinese laws, regulations and cases in Chinese (Chinalawinfo) and English/Chinese (Lawinfochina). One concurrent user only.

Lidai jiao wai she fo wenxian shujuku

Database of Buddhist related documents from non-Buddhist sources published by Zhonghua shuju. Collects a wide variety of documents like edicts, monastery records, stele inscriptions, philosophical texts, poems, and  rock carvings from Buddhist sites.

Long yuan qi kan wang (Dragonsource)

Searchable database of current popular non-academic Chinese periodicals in literature, general culture, news and politics, popular science, economics and law, education, health and lifestyle, history and finance management. For list see EAL pages.

Minguo wenxian daquan

Full-text search database of Republican era books, journals and newspapers based on CADAL collections. Full-text search database of Republican era books, journals and newspapers based on CADAL collections.  Some search results are currently not available to Princeton users.

Missionary, Sinology and Literary Periodicals

17 full-text English-language periodicals published on late Qing and Republican China

Mobilizing East Asia

Tightly organized series of English-language newspapers, books and magazines reporting on developments in East and South-East Asia 1900 to the early 1950s, concentrating on the lead to WWII.

National Center Philosophy and Social Science Documentation (China)

Free database of government-funded Chinese social sciences journals. Coverage varies, but includes in all cases 2012+.

National Palace Museum Open Data

Free access to high-resolution images and related description articles of art pieces (painting, documents, calligraphy, ceramics, jades, curios, rare books and bronzes) in the (Taiwan) NPM collections.

National Palace Museums Periodicals Online

Full-texts of all issues of 3 Chinese Taipei NPM periodicals.

National People’s Congress Database (PRC)

Comprehensive collection of archives and documents of the National People’s Congress, from the 1st Session of 1st NPC to present, including text, photos and videos. Updated regularly.

Nexis UNI (former Lexis-Nexis Academic)

Comprehensive database of legal materials, including cases, statutes, and regulations of the U.S. government and the various state governments; case law from 1789 to present; current and historical statutes and regulations from 1980 forward. Provides full text of many major global, national, and regional newspapers. 

North China Daily News Online

Published as the Daily Edition of the weekly North China Herald, this was the most influential foreign daily in East Asia.

North China Herald

Primary English language newspaper in China, published in Shanghai.

North China Standard Online

The North-China Standard was Japan’s propaganda newspaper in China, influential through its distribution at international conferences.

Oxford Bibliographies: Buddhism

Detailed guide to Buddhism.

Party and Government Documents in English (PR of China)

Party and Government Documents in English (PGDiE) is a unique collection of official documents in English, covering various levels of Chinese government, Communist Party of China (CPC) and National People's Congress (NPC) from authoritative sources from 1921 onwards.

Princeton Oracle Bone Collection in the China Academic Digital Associative Library (CADAL)

The Princeton Oracle Bones collection (119 pieces), relatively small, is one of several collections assembled by missionary Dr. Frank Herring Chalfant. The oracle bones have been photographed using Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) technology, which enables the end-user to decide upon the angle from which an object is lighted. This allows making all of the carvings on the oracle bones clearly visible.

Quanwen faxian

Discovery and document delivery service specialized on Chinese rare books. Clicking on “Search” without a search term allows browsing the books by traditional Chinese classification.

Records of the Maritime Customs Service of China

Records of this internationally staffed bureaucracy under Chinese control.

Renmin Ribao

The PRC national newspaper. For current issues, go directly to publisher's site. IMPORTANT: for pdf files, use Internet Explorer, and open files outside the browser directly in Acrobat Reader or Professional.

Series of Geography, History and Customs of Manchuria-Mongolia DB

A collection of 200 volumes on geography, history and customs of Manchuria and Mongolia between late Chosen and 1945 published by Governor-General of Korea. Includes original text images in Japanese (searchable).

Shen Bao

Searchable full text and PDF page images of this historical Chinese newspaper.

Shengjing shi bao (Shengjing Times) = 盛京時報

In 1906 this Japanese-owned Chinese newspaper was established in Fengtian (today’s Shenyang) by the Japanese journalist Nakajima Masao. It was the highest circulation Chinese language daily newspaper and the most important instrument of Japanese press influence in Manchuria and is a major news resource on events in North-East China. Not full-text searchable, can only be searched on the article title level, but indexes advertisements and images.

Shenzhou ribao (The National Herald) = 神州日报

Established in Shanghai in 1907 this newspaper is among the first larger revolutionary newspaper published in China and was shortly among the most widely sold newspapers in Shanghai. The newspaper changed hands several times and was later acquired by Yuan Shikai. Its publication was interrupted between 1926 and 1937 and again between 1941 and 1945. Not full-text searchable, can only be searched on the article title level, but indexes advertisements and images.

Sibu congkan

Fully searchable collection of 504 original and historical works (3134 volumes) published by the Commercial Press from 1919 to 1936. Original collection used photolithography, which resulted in better editions than the then-available typeset editions. Authoritative editions.

Song Tomb Inscriptions Database

Song dynasty epitaphs collected from a variety of sources, full text searchable, but copying of text is only possible via a pop-up that will show when a section of text is marked. Where available images of rubbings have been added and can be viewed side by side with the text.

South China Morning Post (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)

For 1993+, see the ProQuest Central.

Taiwan Academic Classics

This database collection offers access to a number of different databases from United Digital Publications (Taiwan) including the Scripta Sinica database of Journals by the Academia Sinica and the punctuated full-text edition of the Gujin tushu jicheng.

Tang Tomb Inscriptions Database

Tang dynasty epitaphs collected from a variety of sources, full-text searchable, but copying of text is only possible via a pop-up that will show when a section of text is marked. Where available images of rubbings have been added and can be viewed side by side with the text.

Tokyo Trials Literature Database

Full text searchable database of documents and audio-visual resources covering the trials of World War II Japanese war criminals. The collection is published in stages. All documents will eventually be available in English, Chinese and Japanese. At this moment, some parts are available in English, but related books and documents are still largely in Chinese only. To use the database please click on the button “Log In” button in the top menu and choose “Institutional User Login” without filling in anything, to proceed.

Translations of the Peking Gazette Online

English translations of official edicts and memorials from the Qing dynasty dating from Macartney Mission in 1793 to 1912. The translations are from contemporary English-language sources such as Indo Chinese Gleaner, the China Mail, or the North China Herald, and ultimately go back to items published in the Peking Gazette (Jing bao).

U.S. Intelligence on Asia, 1945-1991

Declassified documentary records of the U.S. intelligence community in the Far East during the Cold War (1945-1991). With focus on People's Republic of China, North Korea and North Vietnam. Also covered are Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Australia.


Collection of searchable Taiwanese full-text newspapers from the United Daily News group, including the Lianhebao from 1951.

Wan fang Fa lü fa gui

Chinese policies and laws.

Wan fang Xin Fang zhi

Full text versions of post-1949 Chinese local gazetteers.

Wan fang Xue shu hui yi

Articles given at academic conferences in China. A minority is abstract-only.

Wan fang Xue shu qi kan

Comprehensive full-text articles from Chinese periodicals and journals, mostly post-2001.

Wan fang Xue wei lun wen

Full text doctoral dissertations and master theses from China, mostly post-2000.

World Newsreels Online

Streaming video of international newsreels produced between 1929 and 1966. All are accompanied by transcripts, with those in foreign languages translated into English.

Xin Wen Bao (Sin Wan Po) = 新聞報

Along with Shen Bao, this early Shanghai newspaper was one of the most widely circulating Chinese newspapers in Shanghai during the Republican period.The newspaper includes the famous literary supplement Kuai Huo lin (published from 1914, from 1932 published as Xin yuan lin). The supplements are part of the database. Not full-text searchable, can only be searched on the article title level, but indexes advertisements and images.

Xu xiu Si ku quan shu

More than 5,000 full-text searchable Chinese classical works, mostly Qing.

Yi shi bao (Social Welfare) = 益世报

The newspaper was founded by the Belgian priest Frédéric-Vincent Lebbe in Tianjin. In 1937, it suspended publication until 1938, when it resumed in Kunming. In 1940 it relocated to Chongqing, and after the Second Sino-Japanese War, it resumed publishing in Tianjin in 1945, until its closure in January 1949. Not full-text searchable, can only be searched on the article title level, but indexes advertisements and images. 

Zhongguo di fang wen xian shu ju ku (Chinese Historical Local Archives Database)

This database, published by Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, gives access to historical local resources (mostly in manuscript form). It include contracts, private and company ledgers, examination documents, medical prescriptions, local theater and opera material, court records, letters, family records, etc. The manuscripts mostly originate from private collections in provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Fujian, and Jiangxi. The material dates mainly from the Qing and Republican period, but there are also some Ming and PRC documents included. ACCESS NOTE: You will be prompted to IP authenticate and see this message: "Does the IP automatically log in?". Click "Sure" to continue.

Zhongguo li dai dian ji zong mu

Catalog of over 2 million Chinese classical works allowing for the analysis of relationships publication patterns. For guides see the EAL pages.

Zhongguo li dai shi ke shi liao hui bian

Searchable database of Chinese epigraphical material.

Zhongguo su wen ku

Database of pre-modern Chinese popular literature.

Zhongguo yanjiu wangluo ziyuan daohang

An easy-to-navigate, well-organized site which brings together a large number of databases in Chinese studies available on the Internet (in many different countries). Most databases are free; some need individual registration; a few need individual registration and small payments.

Subject Librarian(s)

Chinese Studies Librarian
(609) 258-5336
Frist Campus Center

Research Help